China’s Dominance in Critical Minerals: A Human Rights Dilemma

by Editorial Team

The global shift toward renewable energy has highlighted a critical concern: the potential for human rights violations associated with the mining and processing of minerals required for green technologies. This article investigates claims that Chinese-invested enterprises are involved in various labor and environmental violations in the renewable energy sector.

Renewable Energy Sector Alleged Abuses

The London-based Business and Human Rights Resource Center has published a report listing 102 incidents of alleged abuses in all stages of mineral use, from initial research and licensing to mining and processing. These minerals, which include cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, zinc, aluminum, chromium, and rare earth elements, are critical for high-tech products such as solar panels and electric car batteries.

Aggregation of Alleged Abuses by Geography

According to the report, Indonesia had the most reported abuses (27), followed by Peru (16), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (12), Myanmar (11), and Zimbabwe (7). More than two-thirds of these cases entailed human rights breaches, with Indigenous people bearing the brunt of the burden.

China’s Position

China is a key player in the mining, processing, and refining of these minerals, as well as the production of solar panels, wind turbines, and electric car batteries. As a result, its businesses are critical to maintaining equity and fairness in the global transition away from fossil fuels. The research, however, emphasizes that many projects financed in or run by Chinese corporations are located in nations with natural riches but few opportunities for victims to seek redress.


The potential for human rights violations associated with mineral mining and processing for renewable energy technologies highlights the need for stronger protections and regulatory frameworks. As the world races to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, the transition to renewable energy must be done in a just and equitable manner to guarantee that it happens as quickly as possible.

What are your thoughts on suspected human rights violations in the renewable energy industry? How can the international community ensure that the transition to renewable energy is fair and equitable? What role does China need to play in this transition? Please leave your views and comments in the section below.

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